#### Capacitor Equivalence

p
```# https://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/316/lectures/node46.html

from __future__ import annotations

def capacitor_parallel(capacitors: list[float]) -> float:
"""
Ceq = C1 + C2 + ... + Cn
Calculate the equivalent resistance for any number of capacitors in parallel.
>>> capacitor_parallel([5.71389, 12, 3])
20.71389
>>> capacitor_parallel([5.71389, 12, -3])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Capacitor at index 2 has a negative value!
"""
sum_c = 0.0
for index, capacitor in enumerate(capacitors):
if capacitor < 0:
msg = f"Capacitor at index {index} has a negative value!"
raise ValueError(msg)
sum_c += capacitor
return sum_c

def capacitor_series(capacitors: list[float]) -> float:
"""
Ceq = 1/ (1/C1 + 1/C2 + ... + 1/Cn)
>>> capacitor_series([5.71389, 12, 3])
1.6901062252507735
>>> capacitor_series([5.71389, 12, -3])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Capacitor at index 2 has a negative or zero value!
>>> capacitor_series([5.71389, 12, 0.000])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: Capacitor at index 2 has a negative or zero value!
"""

first_sum = 0.0
for index, capacitor in enumerate(capacitors):
if capacitor <= 0:
msg = f"Capacitor at index {index} has a negative or zero value!"
raise ValueError(msg)
first_sum += 1 / capacitor
return 1 / first_sum

if __name__ == "__main__":
import doctest

doctest.testmod()
```