#### Rotate Matrix

a
o
R
```"""
In this problem, we want to rotate the matrix elements by 90, 180, 270
(counterclockwise)
Discussion in stackoverflow:
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/42519/how-do-you-rotate-a-two-dimensional-array
"""

from __future__ import annotations

def make_matrix(row_size: int = 4) -> list[list[int]]:
"""
>>> make_matrix()
[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8], [9, 10, 11, 12], [13, 14, 15, 16]]
>>> make_matrix(1)
[[1]]
>>> make_matrix(-2)
[[1, 2], [3, 4]]
>>> make_matrix(3)
[[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7, 8, 9]]
>>> make_matrix() == make_matrix(4)
True
"""
row_size = abs(row_size) or 4
return [[1 + x + y * row_size for x in range(row_size)] for y in range(row_size)]

def rotate_90(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
"""
>>> rotate_90(make_matrix())
[[4, 8, 12, 16], [3, 7, 11, 15], [2, 6, 10, 14], [1, 5, 9, 13]]
>>> rotate_90(make_matrix()) == transpose(reverse_column(make_matrix()))
True
"""

return reverse_row(transpose(matrix))
# OR.. transpose(reverse_column(matrix))

def rotate_180(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
"""
>>> rotate_180(make_matrix())
[[16, 15, 14, 13], [12, 11, 10, 9], [8, 7, 6, 5], [4, 3, 2, 1]]
>>> rotate_180(make_matrix()) == reverse_column(reverse_row(make_matrix()))
True
"""

return reverse_row(reverse_column(matrix))
# OR.. reverse_column(reverse_row(matrix))

def rotate_270(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
"""
>>> rotate_270(make_matrix())
[[13, 9, 5, 1], [14, 10, 6, 2], [15, 11, 7, 3], [16, 12, 8, 4]]
>>> rotate_270(make_matrix()) == transpose(reverse_row(make_matrix()))
True
"""

return reverse_column(transpose(matrix))
# OR.. transpose(reverse_row(matrix))

def transpose(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
matrix[:] = [list(x) for x in zip(*matrix)]
return matrix

def reverse_row(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
matrix[:] = matrix[::-1]
return matrix

def reverse_column(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> list[list[int]]:
matrix[:] = [x[::-1] for x in matrix]
return matrix

def print_matrix(matrix: list[list[int]]) -> None:
for i in matrix:
print(*i)

if __name__ == "__main__":
matrix = make_matrix()
print("\norigin:\n")
print_matrix(matrix)
print("\nrotate 90 counterclockwise:\n")
print_matrix(rotate_90(matrix))

matrix = make_matrix()
print("\norigin:\n")
print_matrix(matrix)
print("\nrotate 180:\n")
print_matrix(rotate_180(matrix))

matrix = make_matrix()
print("\norigin:\n")
print_matrix(matrix)
print("\nrotate 270 counterclockwise:\n")
print_matrix(rotate_270(matrix))
```