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The Algorithms

Sha 1

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Demonstrates implementation of SHA1 Hash function in a Python class and gives utilities
to find hash of string or hash of text from a file.
Usage: python --string "Hello World!!"
       python --file "hello_world.txt"
       When run without any arguments, it prints the hash of the string "Hello World!!
       Welcome to Cryptography"
Also contains a Test class to verify that the generated Hash is same as that
returned by the hashlib library

SHA1 hash or SHA1 sum of a string is a cryptographic function which means it is easy
to calculate forwards but extremely difficult to calculate backwards. What this means
is, you can easily calculate the hash of  a string, but it is extremely difficult to
know the original string if you have its hash. This property is useful to communicate
securely, send encrypted messages and is very useful in payment systems, blockchain
and cryptocurrency etc.
The Algorithm as described in the reference:
First we start with a message. The message is padded and the length of the message
is added to the end. It is then split into blocks of 512 bits or 64 bytes. The blocks
are then processed one at a time. Each block must be expanded and compressed.
The value after each compression is added to a 160bit buffer called the current hash
state. After the last block is processed the current hash state is returned as
the final hash.
import argparse
import hashlib  # hashlib is only used inside the Test class
import struct
import unittest

class SHA1Hash:
    Class to contain the entire pipeline for SHA1 Hashing Algorithm
    >>> SHA1Hash(bytes('Allan', 'utf-8')).final_hash()

    def __init__(self, data):
        Inititates the variables data and h. h is a list of 5 8-digit Hexadecimal
        numbers corresponding to
        (1732584193, 4023233417, 2562383102, 271733878, 3285377520)
        respectively. We will start with this as a message digest. 0x is how you write
        Hexadecimal numbers in Python
        """ = data
        self.h = [0x67452301, 0xEFCDAB89, 0x98BADCFE, 0x10325476, 0xC3D2E1F0]

    def rotate(n, b):
        Static method to be used inside other methods. Left rotates n by b.
        >>> SHA1Hash('').rotate(12,2)
        return ((n << b) | (n >> (32 - b))) & 0xFFFFFFFF

    def padding(self):
        Pads the input message with zeros so that padded_data has 64 bytes or 512 bits
        padding = b"\x80" + b"\x00" * (63 - (len( + 8) % 64)
        padded_data = + padding + struct.pack(">Q", 8 * len(
        return padded_data

    def split_blocks(self):
        Returns a list of bytestrings each of length 64
        return [
            self.padded_data[i : i + 64] for i in range(0, len(self.padded_data), 64)

    # @staticmethod
    def expand_block(self, block):
        Takes a bytestring-block of length 64, unpacks it to a list of integers and
        returns a list of 80 integers after some bit operations
        w = list(struct.unpack(">16L", block)) + [0] * 64
        for i in range(16, 80):
            w[i] = self.rotate((w[i - 3] ^ w[i - 8] ^ w[i - 14] ^ w[i - 16]), 1)
        return w

    def final_hash(self):
        Calls all the other methods to process the input. Pads the data, then splits
        into blocks and then does a series of operations for each block (including
        For each block, the variable h that was initialized is copied to a,b,c,d,e
        and these 5 variables a,b,c,d,e undergo several changes. After all the blocks
        are processed, these 5 variables are pairwise added to h ie a to h[0], b to h[1]
        and so on.  This h becomes our final hash which is returned.
        self.padded_data = self.padding()
        self.blocks = self.split_blocks()
        for block in self.blocks:
            expanded_block = self.expand_block(block)
            a, b, c, d, e = self.h
            for i in range(0, 80):
                if 0 <= i < 20:
                    f = (b & c) | ((~b) & d)
                    k = 0x5A827999
                elif 20 <= i < 40:
                    f = b ^ c ^ d
                    k = 0x6ED9EBA1
                elif 40 <= i < 60:
                    f = (b & c) | (b & d) | (c & d)
                    k = 0x8F1BBCDC
                elif 60 <= i < 80:
                    f = b ^ c ^ d
                    k = 0xCA62C1D6
                a, b, c, d, e = (
                    self.rotate(a, 5) + f + e + k + expanded_block[i] & 0xFFFFFFFF,
                    self.rotate(b, 30),
            self.h = (
                self.h[0] + a & 0xFFFFFFFF,
                self.h[1] + b & 0xFFFFFFFF,
                self.h[2] + c & 0xFFFFFFFF,
                self.h[3] + d & 0xFFFFFFFF,
                self.h[4] + e & 0xFFFFFFFF,
        return "%08x%08x%08x%08x%08x" % tuple(self.h)

class SHA1HashTest(unittest.TestCase):
    Test class for the SHA1Hash class. Inherits the TestCase class from unittest

    def testMatchHashes(self):
        msg = bytes("Test String", "utf-8")
        self.assertEqual(SHA1Hash(msg).final_hash(), hashlib.sha1(msg).hexdigest())

def main():
    Provides option 'string' or 'file' to take input and prints the calculated SHA1
    hash.  unittest.main() has been commented because we probably don't want to run
    the test each time.
    # unittest.main()
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="Process some strings or files")
        default="Hello World!! Welcome to Cryptography",
        help="Hash the string",
    parser.add_argument("--file", dest="input_file", help="Hash contents of a file")
    args = parser.parse_args()
    input_string = args.input_string
    # In any case hash input should be a bytestring
    if args.input_file:
        with open(args.input_file, "rb") as f:
            hash_input =
        hash_input = bytes(input_string, "utf-8")

if __name__ == "__main__":
    import doctest