#### Hash Map

D
A
p
P
```"""

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hash_table

Another hash map implementation, with a good explanation.
Modern Dictionaries by Raymond Hettinger
"""

from collections.abc import Iterator, MutableMapping
from dataclasses import dataclass
from typing import Generic, TypeVar

KEY = TypeVar("KEY")
VAL = TypeVar("VAL")

@dataclass(frozen=True, slots=True)
class _Item(Generic[KEY, VAL]):
key: KEY
val: VAL

class _DeletedItem(_Item):
def __init__(self) -> None:
super().__init__(None, None)

def __bool__(self) -> bool:
return False

_deleted = _DeletedItem()

class HashMap(MutableMapping[KEY, VAL]):
"""
"""

def __init__(
self, initial_block_size: int = 8, capacity_factor: float = 0.75
) -> None:
self._initial_block_size = initial_block_size
self._buckets: list[_Item | None] = [None] * initial_block_size
assert 0.0 < capacity_factor < 1.0
self._capacity_factor = capacity_factor
self._len = 0

def _get_bucket_index(self, key: KEY) -> int:
return hash(key) % len(self._buckets)

def _get_next_ind(self, ind: int) -> int:
"""
Get next index.

>>> HashMap(5)._get_next_ind(3)
4
>>> HashMap(5)._get_next_ind(5)
1
>>> HashMap(5)._get_next_ind(6)
2
>>> HashMap(5)._get_next_ind(9)
0
"""
return (ind + 1) % len(self._buckets)

def _try_set(self, ind: int, key: KEY, val: VAL) -> bool:
"""
Try to add value to the bucket.

If bucket is empty or key is the same, does insert and return True.

If bucket has another key or deleted placeholder,
that means that we need to check next bucket.
"""
stored = self._buckets[ind]
if not stored:
self._buckets[ind] = _Item(key, val)
self._len += 1
return True
elif stored.key == key:
self._buckets[ind] = _Item(key, val)
return True
else:
return False

def _is_full(self) -> bool:
"""
Return true if we have reached safe capacity.

So we need to increase the number of buckets to avoid collisions.

>>> hm = HashMap(2)
>>> hm._is_full()
True
>>> HashMap(2)._is_full()
False
"""
limit = len(self._buckets) * self._capacity_factor
return len(self) >= int(limit)

def _is_sparse(self) -> bool:
"""Return true if we need twice fewer buckets when we have now."""
if len(self._buckets) <= self._initial_block_size:
return False
limit = len(self._buckets) * self._capacity_factor / 2
return len(self) < limit

def _resize(self, new_size: int) -> None:
old_buckets = self._buckets
self._buckets = [None] * new_size
self._len = 0
for item in old_buckets:
if item:

def _size_up(self) -> None:
self._resize(len(self._buckets) * 2)

def _size_down(self) -> None:
self._resize(len(self._buckets) // 2)

def _iterate_buckets(self, key: KEY) -> Iterator[int]:
ind = self._get_bucket_index(key)
for _ in range(len(self._buckets)):
yield ind
ind = self._get_next_ind(ind)

def _add_item(self, key: KEY, val: VAL) -> None:
"""
Try to add 3 elements when the size is 5
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm
HashMap(1: 10, 2: 20, 3: 30)

Try to add 3 elements when the size is 5
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm
HashMap(-5: 10, 6: 30, -7: 20)

Try to add 3 elements when size is 1
>>> hm = HashMap(1)
>>> hm
HashMap(10: 13.2)

Trying to add an element with a key that is a floating point value
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm
HashMap(1.5: 10)

5. Trying to add an item with the same key
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm
HashMap(1: 20)
"""
for ind in self._iterate_buckets(key):
if self._try_set(ind, key, val):
break

def __setitem__(self, key: KEY, val: VAL) -> None:
"""
1. Changing value of item whose key is present
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__setitem__(1, 20)
>>> hm
HashMap(1: 20)

2. Changing value of item whose key is not present
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__setitem__(0, 20)
>>> hm
HashMap(0: 20, 1: 10)

3. Changing the value of the same item multiple times
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__setitem__(1, 20)
>>> hm.__setitem__(1, 30)
>>> hm
HashMap(1: 30)
"""
if self._is_full():
self._size_up()

def __delitem__(self, key: KEY) -> None:
"""
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__delitem__(3)
>>> hm
HashMap(1: 10, 2: 20)
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__delitem__(-5)
>>> hm
HashMap(6: 30, -7: 20)

# Trying to remove a non-existing item
>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__delitem__(4)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 4
"""
for ind in self._iterate_buckets(key):
item = self._buckets[ind]
if item is None:
raise KeyError(key)
if item is _deleted:
continue
if item.key == key:
self._buckets[ind] = _deleted
self._len -= 1
break
if self._is_sparse():
self._size_down()

def __getitem__(self, key: KEY) -> VAL:
"""
Returns the item at the given key

>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__getitem__(1)
10

>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__getitem__(20)
-20

>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__getitem__(-1)
10
"""
for ind in self._iterate_buckets(key):
item = self._buckets[ind]
if item is None:
break
if item is _deleted:
continue
if item.key == key:
return item.val
raise KeyError(key)

def __len__(self) -> int:
"""
Returns the number of items present in hashmap

>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__len__()
3

>>> hm = HashMap(5)
>>> hm.__len__()
0
"""
return self._len

def __iter__(self) -> Iterator[KEY]:
yield from (item.key for item in self._buckets if item)

def __repr__(self) -> str:
val_string = ", ".join(
f"{item.key}: {item.val}" for item in self._buckets if item
)
return f"HashMap({val_string})"

if __name__ == "__main__":
import doctest

doctest.testmod()
```